Literature review of process sampling procedures, tools and data processing. Two fundamental and complementary approaches to sampling bulk materials:
(i) Bottom-up (Principle of Correct Sampling, appropriate for designing new sampling protocols), and (ii) top-down or empirical approach (could be applied either as a first or as a last stage to quantify measurement uncertainty).
Chapter 2 presents practical considerations for sampling gases and liquids under industrially relevant process conditions. The location of the sampling point first needs to be tackled at the process level. Chapter 3 focuses on how to quantify measurement uncertainty including that arising from sampling. The annex contains a comprehensive list of commercial sampling systems.